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4th International Conference on Urology, will be organized around the theme “Advanced Techniques for Urocare”

Urology 2015 is comprised of 11 tracks and 45 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Urology 2015.

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Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. If bladder muscles become too active, you may feel a strong urge to go to the bathroom when you have little urine in your bladder. This is urge incontinence or overactive bladder. There are other causes of incontinence, such as prostate problems and nerve damage. Population-based surveys indicated varying Urinary Incontinence prevalence estimates with ranges of 1.8−30.5% in European populations. In 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that bladder control problems affect more than 200m people in Europe. Studies suggest that in Europe "major faecal incontinence" affects 1.4% of the general population over 40 years old and constipation affects between 3% and 15% of the population. The percentage of patients on regular dialysis varies across countries as a consequence of the capacity of health care systems to provide treatment. Europe is an example. Whereas in the 15 countries of the European Union (before 2004) the prevalence rate of Urologic disorders was approximately 650 patients per 1 million people, in Central and Eastern Europe it was only 160 patients per 1 million people, reflecting differences in gross national product. Estimates of the global burden of disease indicate that diseases of the kidney and urinary tract account for approximately 830,000 deaths and 18,467,000 disability-adjusted life years annually, ranking them 12th among causes of death (1.4 percent of all deaths) and 17th among causes of disability (1.0 percent of all disability-adjusted life years).
Incontinence may be defined as the involuntary loss of bladder or bowel control. In the United States (U.S.), stress incontinence (SI) is highly prevalent. According to the National Association for Continence (NAFC), the condition affects more than 200 million people worldwide, with a conservative estimate of 25 million adults in the U.S. experiencing chronic or transient SI. The NAFC estimates that 75% to 80% of the SI population comprises women, with 9 million to 13 million suffering severe symptoms. Additionally, an estimated 3.3 million women in the U.S. have pelvic organ prolapse (POP), a condition that may result in SI, and an estimated 18.0 million people suffer from fecal incontinence. In 2012, the value of the U.S. female SI therapies market (as defined by the scope of this report) totaled approximately $1,255.4 million. The majority of sales were derived from overactive bladder drug revenues due to a large population base, wide availability of prescription and OTC products, and ease of use. Over the forecast period covered by this report, total sales in this market are expected to increase at a compound annual rate of 6.6%, reaching an estimated $1,727.2 million in the year 2017. This dynamic, new report from Medtech Insight includes analyses of products, current/forecast markets, competitors, and opportunities in the U.S. female urinary incontinence therapies market. Covered topics in this report include an overview of female urinary incontinence and core therapies, including drug treatments for OAB; injectable urethral bulking agents; urethral sling systems; sacral nerve stimulation, and emerging drugs and technologies.
Genitourinary medicine is a portmanteau that includes aspects of andrology, gynecology and urology. It is primarily related to medicine dealing with sexually transmitted diseases. Delivery of sexual healthcare by nurses and general practitioners was generally found to be acceptable, although this varies by patient sex and ethnicity. Some differences exist between the preferences of a general population sample compared with clinic attenders, but overall there is a high level of concordance. Walk‐in clinics remain a popular choice even when appointment waiting times are short. Rates of sexually transmitted infections and attendances at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have increased over the past 5 years.1,2 Clinics have been encouraged to review how services are delivered and ensure the effective use of available resources. Various initiatives have been suggested, including the introduction of nurse‐delivered services, use of telephone follow‐up clinics, giving results by mobile phone texting and not contacting patients with results unless they are positive. It is important that the views of patients are sought as new ways of delivering services are introduced. Several potential factors may make it difficult to obtain patient involvement in sexual healthcare: patient embarrassment, language barriers in patients from ethnic minorities and a highly mobile population base. It may be equally if not more problematic to obtain the views of those who have not used sexual healthcare services but may need to in the future.
Urogynecology is a fairly new subspecialty and a fast-growing one, with increasing rates of pelvic floor disorders fueling a high demand for its services. In 1996, there was one board-accredited fellowship program for advanced training in urogynecology. By June 2010, according to the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the number of accredited fellowship programs offered by leading academic institutions had grown to 37, and membership in societies associated with the sub-specialty had doubled. Nearly 25% of all females experience frustrating and embarrassing symptoms unnecessarily. Bladder and bowel control, pelvic prolapse, pelvic pain, cystitis and vaginal cosmetic issues are conditions that Dr. Porter, a fellowship trained urogynecologist, and his staff are dedicated to improving. Many treatments provide excellent success rates and do not require surgery. When surgery is necessary, most are performed utilizing the latest minimally invasive procedures. Not all doctors have the same training and experience to address urogynecological problems. Research shows that it is important to seek an expert evaluation from the start. On April 29, 2014, the FDA issued two proposed orders for surgical mesh for transvaginal pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair that put forth changes to address the risks associated with these devices. Once final, manufacturers will be required to provide clinical data in a premarket approval (PMA) application to support the safety and effectiveness of surgical mesh for transvaginal POP. Also, manufacturers of the tools specifically for implanting surgical mesh will be required to obtain premarket clearance (510(k))
Endourology is a minimally invasive technique available to treat kidney stones. Stones may be extracted or fragmented using tiny instruments through natural body channels such as the urethra, bladder and ureter. Endourological procedures include: Urethroscopy: used to treat strictures or blockages of the urethra. Ureteroscopes are precision instruments used for surgical procedures within these structures. Cystoscopy: used to treat bladder stones and tumors. Obstructing prostate tissue can be removed with this approach as well Ureteroscopy: used to treat stones and tumors of the ureter. Nephroscopy: used to treat stones and tumors of the kidney lining. The Section of Endourology was formed in 2002. It developed from the British Society for Endourology, which was a separate organisation independent of BAUS; thereafter, it was felt more appropriate for endourology to be formally represented as a sub-section of BAUS. The Section aims to improve standards and quality of practice within the sub-specialty by promoting training, research and development. It also interacts with members of the public, to seek their advice and opinions on communicating clinical ideas, through an active Stone Patient Advisory Group, which meets on a regular basis, and is deeply committed to the audit of endourological practice in the UK. There is an Annual Spring Meeting which, in 2014, was held in Cambridge. The main meeting is held during the BAUS Annual Meeting in June every year.
Neurourology is the study of how the nervous system affects the urinary system. The brain, spinal cord and nerves are very important to the healthy function of the bladder. Neurological diseases and disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, BPH and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence and the inability to urinate. A number of treatments are available, including medications, catheter use, and surgical procedures. Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at how well the bladder, sphincters, and urethra are storing and releasing urine. Most urodynamic tests focus on the bladder’s ability to hold urine and empty steadily and completely. Urodynamic tests can also show whether the bladder is having involuntary contractions that cause urine leakage. Urodynamic tests range from simple observation to precise measurements using sophisticated instruments. For simple observation, a health care provider may record the length of time it takes a person to produce a urinary stream, note the volume of urine produced, and record the ability or inability to stop the urine flow in midstream. Urodynamic studies have become a major tool in evaluating lower urinary tract dysfunction in children. There are many subtleties in performing these studies in children in juxtaposition to adults; therefore, adaptations specific to children must be made to achieve accurate and reproducible results. Uniformity in how the studies are conducted from center to center will allow for healthier transparency and enhanced comparison of results in both clinical and research situations.
Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles, and penis. The treatment of genitourinary cancer is managed by either a urologist or an oncologist, depending on the treatment type (surgical or medical). Most urologic oncologists in western countries use minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopy or endourology, robotic-assisted surgery, pelvic surgery) to manage urologic cancers amenable to surgical management. The Urologic Oncology Branch conducts clinical and basic research designed to develop better methods for detecting, preventing, and treating patients with kidney cancer, prostate cancer Urothelial cancer, Penile cancer and bladder cancer . It evaluates and manages the patients with non-inherited as well as inherited forms of kidney cancer. Patients with known or suspected localized and locally advanced prostate cancer undergo advanced MRI imaging followed by fusion image-guided biopsy to diagnose and characterize the cancer. They may then be managed with robotic surgery or be followed with active surveillance and intermittent imaging. In addition, we have a growing program in genomics and targeted therapy for bladder cancer patients, including therapy that targets EGFR, FGFR3 and other mutated bladder cancer genes. A subspecialty clinic in Uro-oncology is a unique venture in India. Being a research institute with state-of-the-art infrastructure, we have highly focused team for the care of urological cancers. In cases where multimodality treatment is required, our institution has medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, state-of-the-art radiology, pathology and nuclear medicine departments, all under one roof. There are facilities for brachytherapy, conformal radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The Uro-oncologists, radiation oncologists, medical oncologists and Uro-pathologists discuss the cases and make combined decisions on the management of all the cases at the Tumour Board. Follow up and further management are done as per the current protocols.
Pediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children. Such disorders include cryptorchidism (undescended testes), congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, enuresis, underdeveloped genitalia (due to delayed growth or delayed puberty, often an endocrinological problem), and vesicoureteral reflux. Kidney and Bladder conditions include: hydronephrosis: kidney and bladder stones, neurogenic bladder, urinary tract infections (UTI), urinary tract obstruction: any blockage of urine flow along the urinary tract, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Problems with the urinary tract that are present at birth (congenital defects): Exstrophy bladder, Epispadias, Hypospadias, Posterior urethral valves, Urinary tract infections, Urinary tract tumors, Multicystic kidney, Urinary tract obstruction, Penile abnormalities, Complex urinary incontinence, Undescended testes, Vesicoureteral reflux, Hydronephrosis
Robotic Urology is a new interdisciplinary field for the application of robots in urology and for the development of such systems and novel technologies in this clinical discipline. Urology is among the medical fields with the highest rate of technology advances, which for several years has included the use medical robots. Even though this was designed to assist in general Laparoscopy, most of its application are in the urology field for radical prostatectomy. Robotic radical prostatectomy has now become the gold standard for the treatment of prostate cancer. Robotic-assisted surgery is a leading edge technology. Because it is minimally invasive, the precision of robotic technology is ideal for delicate and complex urologic surgeries. These include prostatectomies, in which the target site is tightly confined and surrounded by nerves affecting urinary control and erectile function. Surgeons using a robotic system have an exacting tool for avoiding damage to surrounding nerves and helping enhance recovery times and the return to normal activities. Robotic surgery enables surgeons to perform a more precise operation than conventional surgery. The operating robot has several advantages over standard surgical techniques because it combines the precision and accuracy of a machine with the judgment of an experienced surgeon. With the potential advantages and latent qualities of robotic assistance in minimally invasive surgery over conventional surgery, robot-assisted surgeries may be developed to the next level and lead to a future revolution of the way surgery is performed. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in the management of localized cancer of the prostate is one such example. The impact of robotics is therefore very promising. However, controlled clinical trials and comparisons from various centers are needed. Other important concerns are the cost and training implications. Future application may also allow integration of pre- and intraoperative imaging in the management of urological diseases. Ultra sound scanning is another tool that was adopted by the medical world after World War II. In 1961, Schlegel et al first reported the usefulness of sonography in urology, for the detection of renal calculi.